Widespread co-occurrence of virulent pathogens within California amphibian communities

Jason T. Hoverman, Joseph R. Mihaljevic, Katherine L.D. Richgels, Jacob L. Kerby, Pieter T.J. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, ranaviruses, and trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae and echinostomes) are highly virulent pathogens known to infect amphibians, yet the extent to which they cooccur within amphibian communities remains poorly understood. Using field surveillance of 85 wetlands in the East Bay region of California, USA, we found that 68% of wetlands had ≥2 pathogens and 36% had ≥3 pathogens. Wetlands with high pathogen species richness also tended to cluster spatially. Our results underscore the need for greater integration of multiple pathogens and their interactions into amphibian disease research and conservation efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-292
Number of pages5
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Amphibian decline
  • Amphibian malformations
  • Chytridiomycosis
  • Coinfection
  • Concomitant infection
  • Disease ecology
  • Emerging infectious disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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