Current methods for detecting infections either require a sample collected from an actively infected site, are limited in the number of agents they can query, and/or yield no information on the immune response. Here we present an approach that uses temporally coordinated changes in highly-multiplexed antibody measurements from longitudinal blood samples to monitor infection events at sub-species resolution across the human virome. In a longitudinally-sampled cohort of South African adolescents representing >100 person-years, we identify >650 events across 48 virus species and observe strong epidemic effects, including high-incidence waves of Aichivirus A and the D68 subtype of Enterovirus D earlier than their widespread circulation was appreciated. In separate cohorts of adults who were sampled at higher frequency using self-collected dried blood spots, we show that such events temporally correlate with symptoms and transient inflammatory biomarker elevations, and observe the responding antibodies to persist for periods ranging from ≤1 week to >5 years. Our approach generates a rich view of viral/host dynamics, supporting novel studies in immunology and epidemiology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)