The Mountain Meadows Massacre and "poisoned springs": Scientific testing of the more recent, anthrax theory

Ugo A. Perego, Alessandro Achilli, Jayne E. Ekins, Lucio Milani, Martina Lari, Elena Pilli, Alexis Brown, Erin P. Price, Spenser R. Wolken, Molly Matthews, Christina A. Allen, Talima R. Pearson, Norman Angerhofer, David Caramelli, Tim Kupferschmid, Paul S. Keim, Scott R. Woodward

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


It has been recorded that one of the possible causes that eventually escalated into the 1857 manslaughter at Mountain Meadows in Southern Utah was the poisoning of an open spring by the Fancher-Baker party as they crossed the Utah territory on their way from Arkansas to California. Historical accounts report that a number of cattle died, followed by human casualties from those that came in contact with the dead animals. Even after the Arkansas party departed, animals continued to perish and people were still afflicted by some unknown plague. Proctor Hancock Robison, a local 14-year-old boy, died shortly after skinning one of the "poisoned" cows. A careful review of the historical records, along with the more recent scientific literature, seems to exclude the likelihood of actual poisoning in favor of a more recent theory that would point to the bacterium Bacillus anthracis as the possible cause of human and animal deaths. In order to test this hypothesis, Proctor's remains were exhumed, identified through mitochondrial DNA analysis, and tested for the presence of anthrax spores. Although preliminary testing of remains and soil was negative, description of the clinical conditions that affected Proctor and other individuals does not completely rule out the hypothesis of death by anthrax.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-83
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • Ancient DNA
  • Anthrax
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Mitochondrial DNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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