Net muscle moments (NMMs) have been used as proxy measures of joint loading, but musculoskeletal models can estimate contact forces within joints. The purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model to estimate tibiofemoral forces and to examine the relationship between NMMs and tibiofemoral forces across walking speeds. We collected kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data as ten adult participants walked on a dual-belt force-measuring treadmill at 0.75, 1.25, and 1.50 m/s. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to each participant and used OpenSim to calculate the NMMs and muscle forces through inverse dynamics and weighted static optimization, respectively. We determined tibiofemoral forces from the vector sum of intersegmental and muscle forces crossing the knee. Estimated tibiofemoral forces increased with walking speed. Peak earlystance compressive tibiofemoral forces increased 52% as walking speed increased from 0.75 to 1.50 m/s, whereas peak knee extension NMMs increased by 168%. During late stance, peak compressive tibiofemoral forces increased by 18% as speed increased. Although compressive loads at the knee did not increase in direct proportion to NMMs, faster walking resulted in greater compressive forces during weight acceptance and increased compressive and anterior/posterior tibiofemoral loading rates in addition to a greater abduction NMM.
- Contact forces
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine