Synergistic effects of α-pinene and exo-brevicomin on pine bark beetles and associated insects in Arizona

R. W. Hofstetter, Z. Chen, M. L. Gaylord, J. D. McMillin, M. R. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) and western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis) cause significant mortality to pines in the southern and western United States. The effectiveness of commercial lures at capturing these bark beetles in Arizona has not been tested and may vary from other regions of their distribution. We conducted experiments using baited Lindgren funnel traps to investigate (i) if D. frontalis is more attracted to the standard commercial lure for D. brevicomis (frontalin + exo-brevicomin + myrcene) than the D. frontalis lure (frontalin + terpene blend), (ii) whether replacement of myrcene with α-pinene changes trap catches of Dendroctonus and associated insects, and (iii) whether the attraction to these lures varies across the geographical range of ponderosa pine forests throughout Arizona. In 2005, we tested various combinations of frontalin, exo-brevicomin, myrcene and α-pinene to D. frontalis, D. brevicomis and associated species. Dendroctonus frontalis, D. brevicomis and the predator Temnochila chlorodia were most attracted to lures with exo-brevicomin. The replacement of the myrcene component with α-pinene in the D. brevicomis lure resulted in the capture of twice as many bark beetles and Elacatis beetles. However, T. chlorodia did not differentiate between monoterpenes. In 2006, traps were set up in 11 locations around Arizona to test the relative attraction of lure combinations. In 9 out 11 locations, the D. brevicomis lure with α-pinene was more attractive than the lure with myrcene or a terpene blend. These results suggest that the D. brevicomis lure with α-pinene rather than myrcene is more effective lure to capture D. brevicomis and D. frontalis in Arizona. However, geographical variation in attractiveness to lures is evident even within this region of the beetles' distributions. Differential attraction of Dendroctonus and their predators to these lures suggests potential use in field trapping and control programmes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-397
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Entomology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2008


  • Bark beetle
  • Brevicomis
  • Dendroctonus
  • Dendroctonus frontalis
  • Elacatis
  • Enoclerus
  • Lure
  • Pheromone
  • Pinus ponderosa
  • Temnochila

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Insect Science


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