Strength and Memory of Precipitation's Control Over Streamflow Across the Conterminous United States

Edom Moges, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Liang Zhang, Jessica M. Driscoll, Laurel G. Larsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


How precipitation (P) is translated into streamflow (Q) and over what timescales (i.e., “memory”) is difficult to predict without calibration of site-specific models or using geochemical approaches, posing barriers to prediction in ungauged basins or advancement of general theories. Here, we used a data-driven approach to identify regional patterns and exogenous controls on P–Q interactions. We applied an information flow analysis, which quantifies uncertainty reduction, to a daily time series of P and Q from 671 watersheds across the conterminous United States. We first demonstrated that information transfer from P to Q primarily reflects the quickflow component of water-budgets, based on a watershed model. Readily quantifiable information flows show a functional relationship with model parameters, suggesting utility for model calibration. Second, applied to real watersheds, P–Q information flows exhibit seasonally varying behavior within regions in a manner consistent with dominant runoff generation mechanisms. However, the timing and the magnitude of information flows also reflect considerable subregional heterogeneity, likely attributable to differences in watershed size, baseflow contributions, and variation in aerial coverage of preferential flow paths. A regression analysis showed that a combination of climate and watershed characteristics are predictive of P–Q information flows. Though information flows cannot, in most cases, uniquely determine dominant runoff mechanisms, they provide a means to quantify the heterogeneous outcomes of those mechanisms within regions, thereby serving as a benchmarking tool for models developed at the regional scale. Last, information flows characterize regionally specific ways in which catchment connectivity changes from the wet to dry season.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2021WR030186
JournalWater Resources Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • CAMELS dataset
  • HBV model
  • information theory
  • model uncertainty
  • precipitation and streamflow interaction
  • streamflow characterization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Strength and Memory of Precipitation's Control Over Streamflow Across the Conterminous United States'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this