Rotational variability of earth's polar regions: Implications for detecting snowball planets

Nicolas B. Cowan, Tyler Robinson, Timothy A. Livengood, Drake Deming, Eric Agol, Michael F. A'Hearn, David Charbonneau, Carey M. Lisse, Victoria S. Meadows, Sara Seager, Aomawa L. Shields, Dennisd Wellnitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan etal. in 2009. We also perform the samePCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface featuresPCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number76
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume731
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 10 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • methods: analytical
  • methods: numerical
  • methods: observational
  • planets and satellites: individual (Earth)
  • techniques: photometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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