Several methods exist to study intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) in humans. Transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography (TTSCE), i.e., bubble scores, is minimally-invasive, but cannot be used to quantify the magnitude of blood flow through IPAVA (QIPAVA). Radiolabeled macroaggregates of albumin (99mTc-MAA) have been used to quantify QIPAVA in humans, but this requires injection of radioactive particles. Previous work has shown agreement between 99mTc-MAA and TTSCE, but this has not been tested simultaneously in the same group of subjects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between QIPAVA quantified with 99mTc-MAA and bubble scores obtained with TTSCE. To test this, we used 99mTc-MAA and TTSCE to quantify and detect QIPAVA at rest and during exercise in humans. QIPAVA significantly increased from rest to exercise using 99mTc-MAA and TTSCE and there was a moderately-strong, but significant relationship between methods. Our data suggest that high bubble scores generally correspond with large QIPAVA quantified with 99mTc-MAA during exercise.
- Contrast echocardiography
- Intrapulmonary shunt
- Pulmonary circulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine