Norman J. Medoff, Dale Hoskins, Gregory D. Newton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Until the mid-1800s, communicating over distances meant waiting long periods of time between transmission and reception. Visual signal systems such as the semaphore (a system using torches or flags to convey meaning) used by the Romans1 and the French2 and smoke signals used by Native Americans were rapid, but the amount of information that could be transmitted quickly and effectively was limited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationElectronic Media
Subtitle of host publicationThen, Now, and Later, Second Edition
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781136030420
ISBN (Print)9780240812564
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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