Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development

Toby Macrae, Anna V. Sosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)922-937
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Linguistics and Phonetics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2 2015


  • Inconsistency assessment
  • phonological encoding
  • underlying representations
  • variability
  • vocabulary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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