There are many examples of branching networks in nature, such as tree crowns, river systems, arteries and lungs. These networks have often been described as being self-similar, or following scale-invariant branching rules, and this property has been used to derive several scaling laws. In this paper we model root systems of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) as branching networks following several simple branching rules. Our objective is to establish a relationship between trunk diameter and root biomass. We explore the effect of the self-similar branching assumption on this relationship. Using data collected from a mature stand in British Columbia, we find that branching asymmetry and the rate of root taper change with root size, thereby violating the assumption of self-similarity. However, the data are in general agreement with Leonardo da Vinci's area-preserving branching hypothesis. We use the field data to parameterize two models, one assuming self-similar branching and a second incorporating the measured size dependencies of branching parameters. The two models differ by only a small amount (≈8%) in their predictions. For both models, the predicted relationship between trunk diameter and root biomass is in good concordance with previously published empirical data. We conclude that the assumption of self-similar branching, although violated by the data, nevertheless provides a useful tool for predicting the allometric relationship between trunk diameter and root biomass. Finally, we use our models to show that the geometric properties of individual bifurcations fundamentally change the root biomass cost of different root topologies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics