Power System Impacts of Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies

Jose David Alvarez Guerrero, Thomas L. Acker, Rafael Castro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

This article explores the potential impacts of integrating electric vehicles (EVs) and variable renewable energy (VRE) on power system operation. EVs and VRE are integrated in a production cost model with a 5 min time resolution and multiple planning horizons to deduce the effects of variable generation and EV charging on system operating costs, EV charging costs, dispatch stacks, reserves and VRE curtailment. EV penetration scenarios of the light-duty vehicle fleet of 10%, 20%, and 30% are considered in the RTS-GMLC test system, and VRE penetration is 34% of annual energy consumption. The impacts of EVs are investigated during the annual peak in the summer and during the four weeks of the year in which high VRE and low loads lead to overgeneration. Uncoordinated and coordinated EV charging scenarios are considered. In the uncoordinated scenario, charging is undertaken at the convenience of the EV owners, modeled using data from the Idaho National Laboratory’s EV Project. Coordinated charging uses an “aggregator” model, wherein EV charging is scheduled to minimize operating costs while meeting the daily charging requirements subject to EV availability and charging constraints. The results show that at each EV penetration level, the uncoordinated charging costs were higher than the coordinated charging costs. During a high-VRE, low-load week, with uncoordinated EV charging at 30% penetration (3% energy penetration), the peak load increased by as much as 27%. Using coordinated charging, the EV load shifts to hours with low prices, coincident with either low load, high VRE, or both. Furthermore, coordinated charging substantially reduces the curtailment of PV by as much as nine times during the low-load seasons, and the curtailment of wind generation by more than half during the summer peak season, compared to the scenarios with no EVs and uncoordinated EV charging. Using a production cost model with multiple planning cycles, load and VRE forecasts, and a “look ahead” period during scheduling and dispatching units was crucial in creating and utilizing the flexibility of coordinated EV charging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-324
Number of pages28
JournalElectricity
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • EV charging
  • VRE curtailment
  • overgeneration
  • power system operation
  • production cost modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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