Paraeducator experiences in inclusive settings: Helping, hovering, or holding their own?

Susan Unok Marks, Carl Schrader, Mark Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


The perspectives and experiences of 20 paraeducators working with inclusion students with disabilities who also present significant behavioral challenges were investigated in this research. The inclusion students were in Grades K through 8 and represented a range of disability categories (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, serious emotional disturbance [SED], learning disability, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [AD/HD]). Findings from this study indicate that paraeducators tend to assume high levels of responsibility for managing the academic and behavioral needs for special education students in inclusive settings. This tendency appears to be due to the nature of the job, which can create conflicting roles in meeting both the needs of inclusion students as well as those of general education teachers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-328
Number of pages14
JournalExceptional Children
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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