On Wet Rocks with Snorkels: Immature Stages of Tritonus Cascade Beetles with Unusual Modification of Spiracles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Laccobiini)

Martin Fikáček, Grey T. Gustafson, Andrew E.Z. Short

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

The egg case and larvae of all three instars of the cascade beetle Tritonus complanatus Short, 2008 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) are described based on specimens found co-occurring with adults and associated with them by comparing histone 3 nDNA sequences. The morphology of the larva is congruent with the phylogenetic position of Tritonus Mulsant, 1844 in the Paracymus-group of the Laccobiini, but also exhibits characters shared with larvae of Hydrobiusini, and some presumed adaptations to the hygropetric life style. The larva has open mesothoracic and abdominal spiracles situated on top of long spiracular tubes in the first instar, likely working as 'spiracular snorkels', and on low tubercles in later instars, along with a well-developed spiracular atrium. Similar spiracular morphology was found in the larva of the terrestrial laccobiine genus Tormus Sharp, 1884, and a brief examination of larvae of few other genera (Oocyclus Sharp, 1882, Hydrobius Leach, 1815) reveals that the peripneustic spiracular system (mesothoracic plus 8 abdominal functioning spiracles) may be more widespread in larval Hydrophilidae than currently believed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-107
Number of pages17
JournalAnnales Zoologici
Volume67
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hydrobius
  • Hydrophilinae
  • hygropetric habitat
  • immature stages
  • Madagascar
  • metapneustic larvae
  • morphology
  • Oocyclus
  • spiracles
  • Tormus
  • Tritonus
  • Water scavenger beetles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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