Oligofructose improves small intestinal lipid-sensing mechanisms via alterations to the small intestinal microbiota

Savanna N. Weninger, Chloe Herman, Rachel K. Meyer, Eve T. Beauchemin, Archana Kangath, Adelina I. Lane, Taylor M. Martinez, Tahia Hasneen, Sierra A. Jaramillo, Jason Lindsey, Gayatri Vedantam, Haijiang Cai, Emily K. Cope, J. Gregory Caporaso, Frank A. Duca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Upper small intestinal dietary lipids activate a gut-brain axis regulating energy homeostasis. The prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS) improves body weight and adiposity during metabolic dysregulation but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study examines whether alterations to the small intestinal microbiota following OFS treatment improve small intestinal lipid-sensing to regulate food intake in high fat (HF)-fed rats. Results: In rats fed a HF diet for 4 weeks, OFS supplementation decreased food intake and meal size within 2 days, and reduced body weight and adiposity after 6 weeks. Acute (3 day) OFS treatment restored small intestinal lipid-induced satiation during HF-feeding, and was associated with increased small intestinal CD36 expression, portal GLP-1 levels and hindbrain neuronal activation following a small intestinal lipid infusion. Transplant of the small intestinal microbiota from acute OFS treated donors into HF-fed rats also restored lipid-sensing mechanisms to lower food intake. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that both long and short-term OFS altered the small intestinal microbiota, increasing Bifidobacterium relative abundance. Small intestinal administration of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum to HF-fed rats improved small intestinal lipid-sensing to decrease food intake. Conclusion: OFS supplementation rapidly modulates the small intestinal gut microbiota, which mediates improvements in small intestinal lipid sensing mechanisms that control food intake to improve energy homeostasis. [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number169
JournalMicrobiome
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Gut microbiota
  • High-fat diet
  • Nutrient-sensing
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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