Objectivity and reliability of the 90°push-up test

B. G. McManis, T. A. Baumgartner, D. A. Wuest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity and stability reliability of the 90°push-up (90PU) test for elementary, high school (HS), and college-age students. One hundred fifty-six elementary and 70 HS students performed the 90PU test on 2 different days. Of those students, 49 elementary students were videotaped for the objectivity portion of the study. Eighty-four college students performed the 90PU on 2 different days, and each day they were scored by 2 to 4 judges. For the elementary girls and boys, the objectivity coefficients were .46 and .75, respectively, and the stability reliability coefficients ranged from .50 to .86 for the elementary and HS students. For the college students, the objectivity coefficients were between .16 and .91, with 6 of the 16 coefficients above .70. The reliability coefficients were between .22 and .87, with 5 of the 7 coefficients greater than .70. Several administration problems with the 90PU test were identified during the testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-67
Number of pages11
JournalMeasurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Objectivity
  • Push-up test
  • Reliability
  • Upper-arm and shoulder-girdle strength and endurance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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