We conducted regional scale CO2 simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) coupled with the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM). We contrasted simulated concentrations with column, ground and aircraft observations during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) 2016 field campaign. Overall, WRFVPRM slightly underestimates CO2 concentrations at ground and column monitoring sites, but it significantly underestimates at an inland tower measurement site, especially within the stable (nocturnal) boundary layer in nighttime. The model successfully captures the airborne vertical profiles but showed a large offset within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the areas surrounding Seoul and around the Taeahn point source emissions in the west coastal area of the Korean Peninsula. A case study flight intended to capture Chinese influence observed no clear signals of long-range transport of CO2, due mainly to the much larger magnitude of background CO2 concentrations. The calculated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) with flux measurements at a tower site in the South Korean Peninsula has also been evaluated comparing with CO2 flux measurements at a flux tower site, resulting in the underestimation by less than a factor of 1.
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