Model Predictive Control With Common-Mode Voltage Injection for Modular Multilevel Converter

Apparao Dekka, Bin Wu, Venkata Yaramasu, Navid Reza Zargari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


Submodule (SM) capacitor voltage ripple is one of the major concerns in modular multilevel converters (MMCs). Capacitor voltage ripple leads to the double-frequency circulating current (CC) in legs, thereby resulting in a cascading effect of increased peak value of the arm current, semiconductor device stress, and power losses in MMCs. In this study, a model predictive control (MPC) with common-mode voltage (CMV) injection is proposed to minimize capacitor voltage ripple and the magnitude of CC. A discrete-time mathematical model of the MMC with CMV is presented to predict the future behavior of the control variables. The injection of CMV guarantees arm voltage balancing without CC control and long-term stability of MMC without large capacitors. The dynamic and steady-state performances of MPC with CMV injection are verified on an MMC with three-level flying capacitor SMs. A performance comparison between the proposed approach and the conventional MPC is also presented. Simulation and experimental studies show that CMV injection significantly reduces the capacitor voltage ripple and the CC in legs. The proposed approach also improves output voltage and current waveform quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7460215
Pages (from-to)1767-1778
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2017


  • Capacitor voltage ripple
  • circulating current (CC)
  • common-mode voltage (CMV)
  • model predictive control (MPC)
  • modular multilevel converter (MMC)
  • three-level flying capacitor (3L-FC) cell
  • total harmonic distortion (THD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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