Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi

Monica L. Gaylord, Richard W. Hofstetter, Thomas E. Kolb, Michael R. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Tree defense against bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their associated fungi generally comprises some combination of constitutive (primary) and induced (secondary) defenses. In pines, the primary constitutive defense against bark beetles consists of preformed resin stored in resin ducts. Induced defenses at the wound site (point of beetle entry) in pines may consist of an increase in resin flow and necrotic lesion formation. The quantity and quality of both induced and constitutive defenses can vary by species and season. The inducible defense response in ponderosa pine is not well understood. Our study examined the inducible defense response in ponderosa pine using traumatic mechanical wounding, and wounding with and without fungal inoculations with two different bark beetle-associated fungi (Ophiostoma minus and Grosmannia clavigera). Resin flow did not significantly increase in response to any treatment. In addition, necrotic lesion formation on the bole after fungal inoculation was minimal. Stand thinning, which has been shown to increase water availability, had no, or inconsistent, effects on inducible tree defense. Our results suggest that ponderosa pine bole defense against bark beetles and their associated fungi is primarily constitutive and not induced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-437
Number of pages10
JournalTree Physiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2011


  • Arizona
  • Dendroctonus
  • Grosmannia
  • Ips
  • Ophiostoma
  • Pinus ponderosa
  • wound response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this