Inverted pedagogy in second semester calculus

Ellie Kennedy, Brian Beaudrie, Dana C. Ernst, Roy St Laurent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This study investigates the effects of applying an inverted classroom model in a second-semester calculus course at a large regional university in the southwest during the Spring of 2013. The sample consisted of four class sections with the same instructor, with a total of 173 students; two class sections were in the experimental group, whereas the other two sections served as a control group. In the experimental sections, students watched video lectures of the course content outside of class, and class time was dedicated to solving problems associated with the content. Learning gains and academic differences between the two groups were investigated by analyzing exam scores and homework grades. In addition a survey (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) was used to measure the students’ motivational orientations and their use of various learning strategies. Results showed there was a significant difference between the two groups on conceptual portions of some exams, where the control group outperformed the experimental group. There were also some significant differences on some aspects of the survey. This paper will discuss the details of the instructional methods, the results of the data analysis, present reasons for the results, and make suggestions for further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)892-906
Number of pages15
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2015


  • Calculus
  • Flipped classroom
  • Inverted classroom
  • Inverted pedagogy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics
  • Education


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