Introducing and illustrating the Delphi method for applied linguistics research

Scott Sterling, Luke Plonsky, Tove Larsson, Merja Kytö, Kate Yaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This paper briefly explains how to conduct a Delphi study, an interactive and iterative data collection method that utilizes expert opinion to create an artifact. Using phase one of a larger ongoing project as an example case, this paper explores decision points of the project and discusses limitations and considerations that often go undisclosed in published manuscripts using the Delphi method. When applying the method in our project, we collected four rounds of feedback from an expert panel to create a taxonomy of questionable research practices (QRPs). While our project did not encounter major issues, we did face challenges, for example, sampling, timing, and power dynamics. Readers of this paper will gain an understanding of the basics of conducting a Delphi study along with a better understanding of the behind-the-scenes decisions that many scholars make when conducting research of this kind.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100040
JournalResearch Methods in Applied Linguistics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Delphi method
  • Expert consensus
  • Iterative data collection
  • Questionable research practices
  • Research ethics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Linguistics and Language


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