Hybrid effectiveness-implementation study designs in sports injury prevention research

Hayley J. Root, Monica R. Lininger, Lindsay J. DiStefano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Despite vast evidence supporting the effectiveness of lower extremity injury prevention programs in a variety of sport settings, age groups, and levels of competition, there is limited evidence on implementation strategies that positively impact the feasibility, scale-up and sustainability of such programs. Sport-related injury prevention is affected by the research-to-practice gap, a pervasive issue in healthcare, where high-quality experimental research is not used in routine clinical practice. An intervention shown to be efficacious in a controlled environment, such as a lab or in a field-study conducted by scientists, will demonstrate a decline in benefit when implemented in the intended clinical setting. Real-world considerations, such as foundational knowledge and training, time constraints, or end user motivation, influence the quality and consistency of implementation. Acknowledging and addressing implementation barriers in a systematic way is essential to promote effective program dissemination. Study design methods that measure both clinical effectiveness and implementation strategies need to be identified. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs simultaneously measure both an intervention's effect on clinical outcomes as well as critical information related to implementation strategy; however these study designs are not frequently utilized. The purpose of this mini-review is to describe: the basics of hybrid designs, rationale for using hybrid designs, and examples of how these designs could be used in athletic healthcare injury prevention research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number981656
JournalFrontiers in Sports and Active Living
StatePublished - Sep 20 2022


  • FIFA 11
  • dissemination
  • implementation science
  • injury prevention program
  • preventive training programs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Anthropology
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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