How Should My Chatbot Interact? A Survey on Social Characteristics in Human–Chatbot Interaction Design

Ana Paula Chaves, Marco Aurelio Gerosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chatbots’ growing popularity has brought new challenges to HCI, having changed the patterns of human interactions with computers. The increasing need to approximate conversational interaction styles raises expectations for chatbots to present social behaviors that are habitual in human–human communication. In this survey, we argue that chatbots should be enriched with social characteristics that cohere with users’ expectations, ultimately avoiding frustration and dissatisfaction. We bring together the literature on disembodied, text-based chatbots to derive a conceptual model of social characteristics for chatbots. We analyzed 56 papers from various domains to understand how social characteristics can benefit human–chatbot interactions and identify the challenges and strategies to designing them. Additionally, we discussed how characteristics may influence one another. Our results provide relevant opportunities to both researchers and designers to advance human–chatbot interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)729-758
Number of pages30
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Volume37
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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