Biological transport processes near the aortic valve play a crucial role in calcific aortic valve disease initiation and bioprosthetic aortic valve thrombosis. Hemodynamics coupled with the dynamics of the leaflets regulate these transport patterns. Herein, two-way coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a 2D bicuspid aortic valve and a 3D mechanical heart valve were performed and coupled with various convective mass transport models that represent some of the transport processes in calcification and thrombosis. Namely, five different continuum transport models were developed to study biochemicals that originate from the blood and the leaflets, as well as residence-time and flow stagnation. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and platelet activation were studied for their role in calcification and thrombosis, respectively. Coherent structures were identified using vorticity and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) for the 2D and 3D models, respectively. A very close connection between vortex structures and biochemical concentration patterns was shown where different vortices controlled the concentration patterns depending on the transport mechanism. Additionally, the relationship between leaflet concentration and wall shear stress was revealed. Our work shows that blood flow physics and coherent structures regulate the flow-mediated biological processes that are involved in aortic valve calcification and thrombosis, and therefore could be used in the design process to optimize heart valve replacement durability.
- Lagrangian coherent structures
- Mass transport
- Shear stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine