Evaluation of a brief harm reduction intervention to reduce celebratory drinking among college students

Christine Arazan, Michael T. Costelloe, Mark T. Willingham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a harm reduction e-card at increasing protective drinking behaviors and decreasing negative outcomes from consuming alcohol.Participants: Participants were college students who turned 21 years old between January 21 2016 and September 27 2017. A total of 1,064 students completed the posttest: 737 from the experimental group and 327 from the control group.Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial evaluation. Three days prior to their birthdays, students were randomly selected to receive a harm reduction e-card (experimental group) or not (control group). Three days after their birthdays, all students were sent an electronic posttest survey to the student’s university email address.Results: Students who received the e-card intervention reported employing more protective behaviors than the individuals who did not receive the card. Conclusions: This evaluation concludes that a harm reduction e-card successfully increased the use of protective drinking strategies but did not impact negative outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1293-1300
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of American College Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023


  • 21st birthday e-card
  • campus alcohol use
  • harm reduction
  • risky drinking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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