Evaluating cultural and linguistic load of IQ scores for English language learners

Carlos O. Calderón-Tena, Kara M. Styck, Desireé Vega, John H. Kranzler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students, including students who are learning English as a second language (English language learners, ELL), is a challenge for many school psychologists who have limited training and practice opportunities with students from these populations. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the percentage of racial/ethnic minority students enrolled in kindergarten through high school in the U.S. was 50% in 2014; and, the percentage of students who were learning English as a second language constituted 9.4% in 2014. Given the diverse demographics in public schools, the provision of state-of-the-art psychological services to children and youth from CLD backgrounds is an increasingly important concern. The present study evaluated the degree to which the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) accurately distinguishes between test scores of English-speakers and English language learners. Prior research has indicated that the C-LIM may not accurately measure the cultural and linguistic demand of standardized tests as intended. Results of the present study indicated that C-LIM individual decisions have low accuracy. Implications for school and educational psychology researchers and practitioners are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-62
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of School and Educational Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Cognitive assessment
  • Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix
  • ELL students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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