Energy expenditure of ambulation using the Sure-Gait® crutch and the standard axillary crutch

A. L. Annesley, M. Almada-Norfleet, D. A. Arnall, M. W. Cornwall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


energy expenditure is increased for ambulation with various assistive devices such as canes, walkers, and crutches compared with unassisted ambulation. the purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether a significant difference in oxygen consumption and heart rate existed during ambulation with two different types of crutches. ten healthy male subjects between the ages of 40 and 60 years participated in this study. each subject ambulated at 1.5 mph on a treadmill using two different types of crutches - the standard axillary crutch and the sure-gaitρ crutch. after walking on the treadmill without an assistive device, subjects ambulated using a three-point, swing-to gait pattern with one of the two types of crutches. this procedure was repeated using the other type of crutch. oxygen consumption and heart rate were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measures design. the results of the study showed a significant difference (p < .01) between ambulation with crutches and unassited ambulation for oxygen consumption and heart rate. no difference, however, was found between the two crutch types.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-23
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical therapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1990


  • Crutches
  • Energy expenditure
  • Equipment, general
  • Gait
  • Orthotics/splints/casts, general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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