Efflux as a mechanism of resistance to antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria: Unanswered questions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

207 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen exhibiting innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. This intrinsic multidrug resistance is caused by synergy between a low-permeability outer membrane and expression of a number of broadly-specific multidrug efflux (Mex) systems, including MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM. In addition to this intrinsic resistance, these and three additional systems, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN and MexJK-OprM promote acquired multidrug resistance as a consequence of hyper-expression of the efflux genes by mutational events. In addition to antibiotics, these pumps export biocides, dyes, detergents, metabolic inhibitors, organic solvents and molecules involved in bacterial cell-cell communication. Homologues of the resistance-nodulation-division systems of P. aeruginosa have been found in Burkholderia cepacia, B. pseudomallei, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and the nonpathogen P. putida, where they play roles in resistance to antimicrobials and/or organic solvents. Despite intensive studies of these multidrug efflux systems over the past several years, their precise molecular architectures, their modes of regulation of expression and their natural functions remain largely unknown.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-62
Number of pages15
JournalGenetics and Molecular Research
Volume2
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antimicrobials
  • Drug tolerance
  • Efflux pumps
  • Multidrug resistance
  • Pseudomonas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Efflux as a mechanism of resistance to antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria: Unanswered questions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this