Effects of physical guidance and knowledge of results on motor learning: Support for the guidance hypothesis

Carolee J. Winstein, Patricia S. Pohl, Rebecca Lewthwaite

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Scopus citations


The guidance hypothesis (Schmidt, 1991) predicts that the guiding properties of augmented feedback are beneficial for motor learning when used to reduce error, but detrimental when relied upon. Therefore, a heavily guiding form offeedback might be detrimental for learning. In addition, the guidance hypothesis predicts that practice with a high relative frequency of augmented feedback would be detrimental for learning. An experiment is described that crossed two forms offeedback with two levels of relative frequency. Subjects practiced movements to a target with either physical guidance or knowledge of results, and with either a high or faded relative frequency. The high frequency physical guidance condition resulted in the poorest retention, and both high frequency feedback conditions resulted in the least accuracy in transfer. These results provide support for the guidance hypothesis and suggest consideration of the combined effects on learning of the type and relative frequency of augmented feedback and acquisition-test conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-323
Number of pages8
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Guidance
  • Knowledge of results
  • Learning
  • Motor skills

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Nephrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of physical guidance and knowledge of results on motor learning: Support for the guidance hypothesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this