High-κ/metal gate pMOSFETs were fabricated on high-quality Ge 1-xCx for the first time. Ge1-xCx layers with very low RMS roughness of ∼3Å were grown directly on Si by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD), without the use of relaxed Si1-xGex virtual substrates. Ge 1-xCx buried-channel (BC) and surface-channel (SC) pMOSFETs with EOT=1.9nm and L=10μm exhibited high drive currents of 10.8 and 15.2 μA/μm, respectively, for VGS-VT = -1.0V. Compared to Si control devices, the BC pMOSFETs showed 2× enhancement in IDsat and 1.6× enhancement in the transconductance (G m). The corresponding enhancements for the SC devices were 3× and 2×, respectively. These results represented an effective hole mobility enhancement of ∼1.5× for the BC devices and ∼2.5× for the SC devices over the universal curve for Si.