Disentangling the role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on rising forest water-use efficiency

Rossella Guerrieri, Soumaya Belmecheri, Scott V. Ollinger, Heidi Asbjornsen, Katie Jennings, Jingfeng Xiao, Benjamin D. Stocker, Mary Martin, David Y. Hollinger, Rosvel Bracho-Garrillo, Kenneth Clark, Sabina Dore, Thomas Kolb, J. William Munger, Kimberly Novick, Andrew D. Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Scopus citations


Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)—the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss—has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncertain. Here, we addressed this gap using 30-y tree ring records of carbon and oxygen isotope measurements and basal area increment from 12 species in 8 North American mature temperate forests. Our goal was to separate the contributions of enhanced photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance to WUE trends and to assess consistency between multiple commonly used methods for estimating WUE. Our results show that tree ring-derived estimates of increases in WUE are consistent with estimates from atmospheric measurements and predictions based on an optimal balancing of carbon gains and water costs, but are lower than those based on ecosystem-scale flux observations. Although both physiological mechanisms contributed to rising WUE, enhanced photosynthesis was widespread, while reductions in stomatal conductance were modest and restricted to species that experienced moisture limitations. This finding challenges the hypothesis that rising WUE in forests is primarily the result of widespread, CO2-induced reductions in stomatal conductance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16909-16914
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number34
StatePublished - Aug 20 2019


  • AmeriFlux
  • CO fertilization
  • Stable isotopes
  • Tree rings
  • Water-use efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Disentangling the role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on rising forest water-use efficiency'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this