Development and validation of the persistent academic possible selves scale for adolescents (PAPSS)

Jieun Lee, Jenefer Husman, Samuel B. Green, Sarah K. Brem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The Persistent Academic Possible Selves Scale for Adolescents (PAPSS: 51items) was developed to measure diverse aspects of future-oriented motivation and future-oriented self-regulated learning in pursuing academic future goals. To validate the scale, (a) the internal structure of the PAPSS was examined (N = 495) and (b) the PAPSS was assessed in comparison with the Oyserman (2004) open-ended possible selves questionnaire as predictors of external measures (N = 302) using Multi-Goal Multi-Theory analysis. Overall, the results supported the construct validity of the PAPSS. The final factor structure included three persistent academic goal factors (improving grades, better student, and more attention in class) and five theory-based factors (social group identity, peer group identity, self-concept, motivational self-regulated learning, and performance). The structure demonstrated good model fit. Based on its relationships with external measures as well as theory, the PAPSS has advantages over other available measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-28
Number of pages10
JournalLearning and Individual Differences
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Academic possible selves
  • Adolescence
  • Scale development
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Structural equation modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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