Development and Initial Validation of the Betrayal Blindness Questionnaires (BBQs)

Jennifer M. Gómez, Nelson O.O. Zounlome, Laura K. Noll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Emerging adults of Color are at increased risk for interpersonal trauma. Rotating betrayal blindness (RBB) is when awareness of trauma shifts across contexts and time. With no known measures assessing RBB, the purpose of this study is to provide an initial validation of the Betrayal Blindness Questionnaires (BBQs) among a sample of emerging adults of Color with trauma histories. The BBQs assess past memory (PM-BBQ), current memory (CM-BBQ), and rotating betrayal blindness (R-BBQ). Participants (N = 155) were college students of Color who completed the one-hour online survey at a location of their choice. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the PM-BBQ retained 22 items, the CM-BBQ retained 18 items, and the R-BBQ retained 19 items. With each questionnaire having four factors, the BBQs can be used in basic and applied research to better examine nonlinear changes to autobiographical memory for trauma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-466
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2023


  • Rotating betrayal blindness
  • betrayal trauma theory
  • emerging adults of Color
  • scale development
  • trauma memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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