The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the first widespread vaccination campaign against a coronavirus. Many vaccinated subjects are previously naive to SARS-CoV-2; however, almost all have previously encountered other coronaviruses (CoVs), and the role of this immunity in shaping the vaccine response remains uncharacterized. Here, we use longitudinal samples and highly multiplexed serology to identify mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses against a range of CoV Spike epitopes, in both phylogenetically conserved and non-conserved regions. Whereas reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes shows a delayed but progressive increase following vaccination, we observe distinct kinetics for the endemic CoV homologs at conserved sites in Spike S2: these become detectable sooner and decay at later time points. Using homolog-specific antibody depletion and alanine-substitution experiments, we show that these distinct trajectories reflect an evolving cross-reactive response that can distinguish rare, polymorphic residues within these epitopes. Our results reveal mechanisms for the formation of antibodies with broad reactivity against CoVs.
- CP: Immunology
- CP: Microbiology
- multiplexed serology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)