Comparing hot and cold loading in an integrated biomass recovery operation

Anil Raj Kizha, Han Sup Han, Nathaniel Anderson, Anil Koirala, Libin T. Louis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The balance of production activities at the landing is pivotal to the success of any forest harvesting operation and has a direct impact on the cost and efficiency of the enterprise. The primary objective of this study was to understand the operational characteristics of the loader in a hot operation (handling both sawlog and biomass components concurrently) and cold operation (handling biomass and sawlogs separately) for harvesting sawlogs and biomass. Systematic work sampling techniques were employed to obtain "snapshots" of the loader activities for a cable logging operation, including the interaction of the loader with other operational phases and delay time for both hot and cold configurations. The results show that for hot loading at the landing, the yarder was the most utilized machine (85%), and was the bottleneck of the operation, followed by the loader (70%). In the hot loading configuration, 39% of operational delay during truck loading was caused by the loader and was predominantly due to movement of the loader within or between the landings. This was followed by the yarder (19%, due to rigging activities) and the chaser (15%, to maintain the crews' safety). In the cold loading configuration, delays due to the unavailability of roll-off bins constituted up to 77% of the operational delay. This suggests that the number of bins and trucks hauling biomass has a crucial role in the overall efficiency of the biomass harvesting system, and should be well balanced with loading capacity. Additionally, the choice of hot or cold biomass loading operations is highly dependent on the site and operating conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number385
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020


  • Forest operations
  • Forest residue recovery
  • Integrated harvesting
  • Operational delays
  • Woody biomass utilization
  • Work sampling techniques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry


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