Genomic and antigenic characterization of members of the Sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) complex reveals the presence of five clades that differ in their geographical distribution. Saint Floris and Gordil viruses, both found in Africa, form one clade; Punique, Granada and Massilia viruses, all isolated in the western Mediterranean, constitute a second; Toscana virus, a third; SFNV isolates from Italy, Cyprus, Egypt and India form a fourth; while Tehran virus and a Serbian isolate Yu 8/76, represent a fifth. Interestingly, this last clade appears not to express the second non-structural protein ORF. Karimabad virus, previously classified as a member of the SFNV complex, and Gabek Forest virus are distinct and form a new species complex (named Karimabad) in the Phlebovirus genus. In contrast with the high reassortment frequency observed in some South American phleboviruses, the only virus of the SFNV complex with evidence of reassortment was Granada virus.
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