Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Biculturalism describes one's status of being identified with two cultures, internalizing, or containing within oneself, the identity and/or behaviors of both cultures. Biculturalism occurs as a result of a variety of situations, including immigration, interethnic relationships, mixed heritage, colonialism and war-related occupations, expatriation, and international educational opportunities. Biculturalism is associated with higher levels of cognitive complexity and better performance on tasks requiring creativity. Differences in development of biculturalism have been associated with generational status, bilingual fluency, choice to be in a bicultural environment, personality factors, such as low neuroticism, influence willingness to engage in new cultural, and the nature of previous bicultural experience. Contextual issues influencing bicultural identity integration include, acculturative stress, intercultural conflict, discrimination, and cultural isolation. Most research on biculturalism has been done with Asian American populations. Research with other populations is growing. Little is known about the development of bicultural identity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences
Subtitle of host publicationVolume IV: Clinical, Applied, and Cross-Cultural Research
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781119547181
ISBN (Print)9781119057475
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Bicultural
  • Culture
  • Diversity
  • Ethnicity
  • Identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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