Beyond C60: The Higher Fullerenes

Franqois Diederich, Robert L. Whetten

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360 Scopus citations


In 1990, Kratschmer, Huffman, et al. reported the preparation of macroscopic quantities of buckminsterfullerene (C60), the third allotropic and first molecular form of carbon, named after Buckminster Fuller, an architect renowned for his geodesic dome structures, by resistive heating of graphite under an inert atmosphere. 1 In following vigorous developments, the cagelike truncated icosahedral structure of Ceo, resembling a soccer ball, has been firmly established.2 This structure had been predicted in 1985 by Kroto, Smalley, et al. at Rice University to account for the exceptional stability of the C60 species in carbon cluster beams produced by laser vaporization of graphite.3 Since 1981, Chapman et al. at UCLA had pursued the preparation of this carbon sphere in a total synthesis approach, which is documented in four Ph.D. theses.4 However, it was only after the 1985 communication by the Rice group that a broad range of chemists and physicists became interested in theoretical calculations to predict the structure and properties of buckminsterfullerene. 20c, 5 Perhaps the most important data generated between 1985 and 1990 was the four-line IR spectrum of C60, which was crucial for the discovery of the compound in the soot produced by resistive heating of graphite.6.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-126
Number of pages8
JournalAccounts of Chemical Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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