Association of Risk Factors with Receiving a Foot Check in People With Diabetes: NHANES 2013-2016

Mark W. Cornwall, Meghan Warren, Wyatt Witty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Aims: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends annual foot examinations for those with diabetes. The factors related to who receives an annual examination is not completely understood. This study aims to identify factors that influence whether individuals with diabtes had their feet checked for sores or irritations. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), were analyzed to determine the factors that influence whether an annual foot check was performed. Results: Participants with abnormal A1C (> 6.5%) had higher odds of having their feet checked compared to those with a normal A1C (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28–5.30). The presence of retinopathy (AOR = 2.76; 95% CI:1.13–6.73) or kidney disease (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI:1.11–5.03) also increased the odds of a foot check. Finally, the number of risk factors for diabetic complications was significantly associated with having a foot check when modeled as a continuous variable (AOR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14–1.63). Conclusions: Whether an individual received an annual foot check for sores or irritations was influenced by the number of risk factors they had, especially an elevated A1C value, and the presence of retinopathy or kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-131
Number of pages6
JournalPrimary Care Diabetes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Diabetic foot screening risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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