Applying the 3C model to groupware development

Hugo Fuks, Alberto B. Raposo, Marco A. Gerosa, Carlos J.P. Lucena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


This paper introduces an approach based on the 3C (communication, coordination and cooperation) collaboration model to the development of collaborative systems. The 3C model is studied by means of a detailed analysis of each of its three elements, followed by a case study of a learningware application and the methodology of a web-based course, both designed based on this model. Moreover, this paper describes a component-based system architecture following this 3C approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-328
Number of pages30
JournalInternational Journal of Cooperative Information Systems
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Collaboration
  • Communication
  • Cooperation
  • Coordination
  • Groupware development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications


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