Anticipated Readers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


The complexity of its themes and concerns suggests that Augustine anticipated multiple audiences for the “Confessions,” including his critics within the Catholic and Donatist churches of North Africa and his former compatriots among the Manichaean community. For the former, it served as an apology, demonstrating the authenticity of his spiritual development away from his Manichaean past. For the latter, it served both as a polemic, cleverly criticizing Manichaeism in the guise of self-condemnation, and as a protreptic, offering himself as an exemplar of a path to conversion commensurable with those spiritual values he could appreciate in the Manichaeans, despite their heresy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Cambridge Companion to Augustine’s Confessions
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781108672405
ISBN (Print)9781108491860
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • apology
  • conversion
  • Faustus
  • Manichaeism
  • polemic
  • protreptic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Arts and Humanities


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