Aminoglycosides are bactericidal aminoglycosidic aminocyclitols. They are cost effective and therefore widely used, however ototoxicity is a prominent dose-limiting side effect. Aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity leads to permanent bilaterally severe, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss and temporary vestibular hypofunction. The permanent hearing loss is accompanied by degeneration of hair cells and neurons in the cochlea. An iron-aminoglycoside complex is believed to potentiate ROS-induced cellular degeneration in the cochlea. The development of aminoglycoside otoprotective strategies is a primary goal in ototoxicity research. Animal experiments have provided encouraging evidence for the protection of cochlear hair cells and neurons from aminoglycoside toxicity. However, the extent to which such protection, generalize to human ototoxicity remains unresolved.
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