A structural model for souvenir consumption, travel activities, and tourist demographics

Kristen K. Swanson, Patricia E. Horridge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8) was used to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations (travel activities and tourist demographics) and souvenir consumption (souvenir products, product attributes, and store attributes). A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from 398 tourists who had traveled to Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: souvenir products, product attributes, store attributes, and travel activities. Results indicated that the travel activities of tourists had positive correlations with souvenir consumption, while tourist demographics had no correlation. Thus, retailers who can identify the travel activities of their tourist customer should do so to provide a better souvenir product mix with appealing attributes sold in an appealing environment. By using identified travel activities, retailers can partner with lodging facilities, restaurants, and tourism boards to encourage positive shopping experiences for the tourist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-380
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2004


  • Souvenirs
  • Structural modeling
  • Tourists' preferences
  • Travel activities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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