A genetic linkage map of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms

S. E. Travis, K. Ritland, T. G. Whitham, P. Keim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to rapidly generate a dense linkage map for pinyon pine (Pinus edulis). The map population consisted of 40 megagametophytes derived from one tree at Sunset Crater, Arizona. A total of 78 primer combinations, each with three to five selective nucleotides, amplified 542 polymorphic markers. Of these, 33 markers showed significant deviation from the expected Mendelian genotypic segregation ratio of 1:1, and 164 showed complete linkage with another marker. This resulted in 338 unique markers mapping to 25 linkage groups, each of which ranged from 2 to 22 markers, averaging 80 centiMorgans (cM) in size and covering 2,012 cM (2,200 cM with the inclusion of 25 cM for each of 7 unlinked markers). Pairwise linkage values gave a genome size estimate of 2,390 cM, suggesting comprehensive coverage of the genome. A Search for subsets of primer combinations giving the best map coverage found 10 primer combinations which together marked 72% of the linkage map to within 10 cM; an additional 10 primer combinations increased this percentage to 85%. Our map represents an initial step towards the identification of quantitative trait loci associated with pest resistance and water stress in pinyons and will further allow us to examine introgression rates between P. edulis and P. californiarum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)871-880
Number of pages10
JournalTheoretical and Applied Genetics
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Oct 1998


  • AFLP
  • Linkage map
  • Pinus edulis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics


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