Background: Sport-related concussion is a public concern with between 1.6 and 3.8 million sport-and recreation-related injuries occurring annually. An estimated 65% to 90% of concussed athletes show oculomotor disruption such as difficulty with saccades, accommodation, smooth pursuit, and fixation. A rapid number-naming saccade test, the King-Devick (K-D) test, has shown promising results as part of a multifaceted concussion assessment tool. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the two versions of the K-D in collegiate aged (18-24) athletes to determine the agreement between versions. A secondary purpose was to investigate the association of K-D scores with sport, sex, use of glasses or contacts, and age of the athlete. Study design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Division 1 NCAA collegiate athletes across ten sports were recruited to participate in baseline concussion assessments at the beginning of their respective athletic season. Correlations and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of K-D scores with sex and age. Results: One-hundred and nine athletes (69 males, 40 females; mean age =20.40±1.38 years) were baseline tested. There was excellent agreement (ICC=0.93, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.95) between the paper and computer version. Preseason K-D scores were statistically different (r2=0.873, p<0.05) with athletes scoring a mean of 37.58 seconds on the paper version (95% CI, 36.21, 38.96) and athletes scoring a mean of 41.48 seconds for the computerized tablet version (95% CI, 40.17, 42.91). There were no significant differences in sex, sport, or use of glasses noted for both versions. Age differences were identified; eighteen-year-old athletes took statistically longer than their peers for both K-D versions. Pairwise comparisons showed statistically significant differences between 18-year olds up to the age of 21-year-olds (p<0.05) for the computer version and statistically significant differences between 18-year olds up to 22-year-olds (p<0.05) for the paper version. Conclusion: This study supports the use of either version of the K-D test as a potential part of a multifaceted concussion assessment. The age of the athlete influences scores and therefore a K-D baseline should be repeated annually for collegiate athletes. Clinicians should not substitute K-D versions (computer vs. paper) in comparing baseline to a post-concussion K-D score as the scores are quite different.
- movement system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine