422 Million intrinsic quality factor planar integrated all-waveguide resonator with sub-MHz linewidth

Matthew W. Puckett, Kaikai Liu, Nitesh Chauhan, Qiancheng Zhao, Naijun Jin, Haotian Cheng, Jianfeng Wu, Ryan O. Behunin, Peter T. Rakich, Karl D. Nelson, Daniel J. Blumenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Scopus citations


High quality-factor (Q) optical resonators are a key component for ultra-narrow linewidth lasers, frequency stabilization, precision spectroscopy and quantum applications. Integration in a photonic waveguide platform is key to reducing cost, size, power and sensitivity to environmental disturbances. However, to date, the Q of all-waveguide resonators has been relegated to below 260 Million. Here, we report a Si3N4 resonator with 422 Million intrinsic and 3.4 Billion absorption-limited Qs. The resonator has 453 kHz intrinsic, 906 kHz loaded, and 57 kHz absorption-limited linewidths and the corresponding 0.060 dB m−1 loss is the lowest reported to date for waveguides with deposited oxide upper cladding. These results are achieved through a careful reduction of scattering and absorption losses that we simulate, quantify and correlate to measurements. This advancement in waveguide resonator technology paves the way to all-waveguide Billion Q cavities for applications including nonlinear optics, atomic clocks, quantum photonics and high-capacity fiber communications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number934
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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