36 Hz integral linewidth laser based on a photonic integrated 4.0 m coil resonator

Kaikai Liu, Nitesh Chauhan, Jiawei Wang, Andrei Isichenko, Grant M. Brodnik, Paul A. Morton, Ryan O. Behunin, Scott B. Papp, Daniel J. Blumenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Laser stabilization sits at the heart of many precision scientific experiments and applications, including quantum information science, metrology, and atomic timekeeping. Many of these systems narrow the laser linewidth and stabilize the carrier by use of Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) locking to a table-scale, ultrahigh quality factor (Q), vacuum spaced Fabry–Perot reference cavity. Integrating these cavities to bring characteristics of PDH stabilization to the chip scale is critical to reducing their size, cost, and weight, and enabling a wide range of portable and system-on-chip applications. We report a significant advance in integrated laser linewidth narrowing, stabilization, and noise reduction by use of a photonic integrated 4.0 m long coil resonator to stabilize a semiconductor laser. We achieve a 36 Hz 1/π -integral linewidth, Allan deviation of 1.8 × 10−13 at 10 ms measurement time, and a 2.3 kHz/s drift—to the best of our knowledge, the lowest integral linewidth and highest stability demonstrated for an integrated waveguide reference cavity. This performance represents over an order of magnitude improvement in integral linewidth and frequency noise over previous integrated waveguide PDH stabilized reference cavities and bulk-optic and integrated injection locked approaches, and over two orders of magnitude improvement in frequency and phase noise than integrated injection locked approaches. Two different wavelength coil designs are demonstrated, stabilizing lasers at 1550 nm and 1319 nm. The resonator is bus-coupled to a 4.0 m long coil, with a 49 MHz free spectral range, mode volume of 1.0 × 1010 µm3 , and 142 million intrinsic Q , fabricated in a CMOS compatible, ultralow loss silicon nitride waveguide platform. Our measurements and simulations show that the thermorefractive noise floor for this particular cavity is reached for frequencies down to 20 Hz in an ambient environment with simple passive vibration isolation and without vacuum or thermal isolation. The thermorefractive noise limited performance is estimated to yield an 8 Hz 1/π -integral linewidth and Allan deviation of 5 × 10−14 at 10 ms, opening a stability regime that heretofore has been available only in fundamentally non-integrated systems. These results demonstrate the potential to bring the characteristics of laboratory-scale stabilized lasers to the integrated, wafer-scale compatible chip scale, and are of interest for a number of applications in quantum technologies and atomic, molecular, and optical physics, and with further developments below 10 Hz linewidth, can be highly relevant to ultralow noise microwave generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)770-775
Number of pages6
JournalOptica
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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